There are two main ways for governments to collect taxes. One is by taxing income directly. This is known as an income tax. The other is taxing only income that is spent.
Currently, some types of income are either taxed at lower rates than ordinary income or are exempt from taxation to some degree.
In general, only cash income is subject to income tax. In-kind benefits—benefits that are received as goods or services rather than as cash—are not.
Tax credits and deductions are two ways to reduce tax liability. Tax credits directly reduce the amount of taxes owed, dollar-for-dollar. They benefit all those who owe tax.
The federal estate tax was enacted in 1916 to raise revenues. Its intent was also to reduce the concentration of wealth, thus increasing economic equality.
State and local governments issue bonds to finance important projects that meet social goals and benefit communities. Bonds are attractive because they provide financial flexibility.
Social Security benefits are paid through a self-financing system.
Social Security program administration has multiple functions. It processes applications and payments and operates field offices around the country.
Some proposals to address Social Security solvency would adjust the calculation of initial benefits. Others adjust benefit growth over time.
Social Security benefits are calculated as a percentage of lifetime average earnings. Policymakers consider two factors when establishing the calculation of lifetime average earnings.