Mobility on Demand


Some transportation options and programs provide consumers with more flexibility. They allow passengers to get from one specific location to another rather than travel on a fixed route. This is known as Mobility on Demand or sometimes demand-responsive transportation. It is common in rural areas because of the low population density and long distances between destinations. Such services can also take the form of taxicabs, transportation network companies (TNCs), volunteer drivers, and ride-share programs. In some cases, it may be more cost-effective for human service agencies to contract with private taxis or nonprofit volunteer driver programs to obtain transportation services for their clients. For example, some area agencies on aging offer their clients vouchers that subsidize taxi rides rather than providing the services directly. 

Transportation network companies: TNCs, also known as ride-hailing companies, use online platforms. They connect passengers who need rides with drivers who offer rides using their personal, noncommercial vehicles. TNCs have made Mobility on Demand commonplace in cities and have been a driving force for technological change in the overall transportation system. They have increased transportation options and have the potential to improve quality and decrease prices. 

TNCs maintain that they are not service providers but rather facilitators of transactions. Therefore, they have limited responsibility for complying with legal requirements such as background checks, insurance coverage, and vehicle safety mandates (see this chapter’s section on Accessibility). This claim has been challenged in the courts. Until it is fully resolved, however, the uncertainty about which laws apply to TNCs presents unique challenges for regulators seeking to protect both passengers and drivers. Most states have put in place some regulations of TNCs. Some local jurisdictions have done so as well. 

Universal Mobility as a Service (UMaaS): People living in urban centers are embracing mobility options available as alternatives to driving. These include walking, biking, taking public transportation, and getting rides from taxis and TNCs like Uber and Lyft. To assist individuals, Mobility as a Service (MaaS) platforms offer on-demand and real-time information on the transportation options available to them. It also allows them to book and pay for travel within the system, regardless of the number of providers and transfers required to complete a trip. For example, a MaaS app might present someone with different options for getting to a particular destination, which could include renting a scooter to get to a public transit station, then taking public transit, and then getting a taxi to the final destination. 

UMaaS expands on this concept to offer all customers a single platform to efficiently identify all available transportation options, compare costs, schedule a ride, and pay for a trip. This includes transportation options for populations with limited access to services, such as wheelchair-accessible vehicles available for people with disabilities. It combines the concept of person-centered mobility that is intrinsic to mobility management with modern technology platforms to offer customers seamless transportation.  



Transportation network companies (TNCs)

Policymakers should ensure that TNCs: 

  • ensure safety, 
  • incorporate consumer protections in such areas as access to redress, and 
  • expand access to transportation in a nondiscriminatory manner. 

At a minimum, state and local governments should ensure that TNCs: 

  • hire only drivers who are at least 21 years old, properly licensed, appropriately insured, and adequately trained, and whose driving records and background checks are consistent with passenger safety; 
  • ensure that vehicles are properly registered and routinely inspected and provide visible identification for customers to ascertain their driver and vehicle; 
  • maintain proper documentation on each driver and vehicle; 
  • ensure transparency in transactions from the start, including on rates charged; 
  • establish a meaningful dispute-resolution process and provide consumers with clear information on how to file a complaint; 
  • provide service to all people in a nondiscriminatory manner; and 
  • provide or support access to transportation for people with disabilities. 

Universal Mobility as a Service

Policymakers and the private sector should implement UMaaS to expand access to transportation for everyone in the community. This includes older adults, people with disabilities or limited mobility, and people with low incomes.